Manitoba History: ‘A Great Feeling of Unity’: Anglican Hospitality for Orthodox Congregations in Manitoba
by Stephen C. Sharman
1. I wish to thank Dr. Roman Yereniuk of St. Andrew’s College, University of Manitoba, Mrs Gloria Romaniuk, Archivist of the Diocese of Rupert’s Land, Mrs. Diane Campbell, Archivist of the Anglican Parish of St. Michael and All Angels, Winnipeg, The Rev. Canon A. M. L. Klassen, formerly rector of the Anglican Parish of St. Michael and All Angels, Winnipeg, Mr. Jim Blanchard, Mr. Peter Clarke and Mrs. Dorothy Kealey for their help with various aspects of this project.
2. I saw the Icon when I visited York in 1992. I do not know the identities of the saints.
3. For the establishment of the Muscovy Company, see A. L. Rowse, The Expansion of Elizabethan England, New York, 1955, pp. 168, 191 & 227.
4. There is a considerable literature on the subject of Anglican-Orthodox relations. In this country, we have an important article by Trevor Powell, Archivist of the Anglican Diocese of Qu’Appelle in southern Saskatchewan, which describes that Diocese’s response to the presence of Christians from Eastern Europe: ‘The Church of England and the “Foreigner” in the Diocese of Qu’Appelle and Saskatchewan,’ Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society, Vol. 28 (1986), pp. 31-43. Owen Chadwick’s biography of Archbishop Ramsey, Michael Ramsey: A Life, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990, contains a chapter, ‘Eastern Christendom,’ pp. 287-312, which describes the warm relations of an admittedly pro-Orthodox English bishop with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Other useful titles on the subject of Anglican-Orthodox relations are V. T. Istaurides, Orthodoxy and Anglicanism, translated by Colin Davey, London: SPCK, 1966, Michael Ramsey, The Church of England and the Eastern Orthodox Church, London: SPCK, 1946, and P. E. Shaw, The Early Tractarians and the Eastern Church, London: A. R. Mowbray & Co. 1930.
5. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, p. 1026. For Palmer’s interest in Russia and the Russian Orthodox Church, see his two books, Dissertations on Subjects Relating to the “Orthodox” or “Eastern Catholic” Communion, London: Joseph Masters, 1853 and Notes of a Visit to the Russian Church in the Years 1840, 1841, J. H. Newman (ed.), London: Kegan Paul, Trench 1882.
6. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, pp. 778-779. Palmer’s correspondence with Khomiakoff was published in W. J. Birkbeck (ed.), Russia and the English Church during the last Fifty Years, Volume One: Containing a Correspondence between Mr. William Palmer, Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and M. Khomiakoff, in the years 1844-1854, London: Rivington, Percival & Co. 1895.
7. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, p. 958.
8. The Venerable Bede describes Theodore’s time as Archbishop of Canterbury as ‘such happy times feliciora fuere tempora’: Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People iv.2 V, pp. 334-335 in B. Colgrave and R. A. B. Mynors (eds.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
9. Not all Canadian Anglicans shared a positive approach to Orthodox immigrants to Canada. Bishop George Exton Lloyd, a graduate of Wycliffe College, Toronto, strongly urged the assimilation of Galicians/Ukrainians into a Protestant British and Canadian society. For a summary of his views, see Marilyn Barber, ‘The Fellowship of the Maple Leaf Teachers’ in Barry Ferguson (ed.), The Anglican Church and the World of Western Canada 1820-1970, Regina: Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1991, p.156; see also R. Douglas Francis, The Prairie West as Promised Land, pp. 294-304.
10. For an account of the arrival of Ukrainians in Manitoba and the establishment of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada, see Roman Yereniuk, The Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Lviv, 2010, pp. 191-278.
11. Holy Trinity Orthodox Sobor in Winnipeg is an example of a Church built with the financial assistance of the Russian Government.
12. The Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St. John Suchavsky, Winnipeg, was originally the McDougall Memorial Methodist Church, Basil Rotoff, Roman Yereniuk & Stella Hryniuk Monuments to Faith, Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1990, p. 94.
13. I have visited all four and worshipped in three of them. The services were all Orthodox services.
14. This Church is on Second Street between First and Second Avenues. When I visited this church for Vespers, I was told that the Orthodox parish purchased the building for much less than it was worth because the Episcopalians were anxious to help their Orthodox friends. When I left the Church, I saw a body lying on the pavement surrounded by police and emergency people. I was told that the body had fallen from a nearby building and had been helped to fall.
15. For an account of the acquiring of All Saints Church by the Russian Orthodox community, see Gillian Crow This Holy Man: Impressions of Metropolitan Anthony, Crestwood, NY: St Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2005, pp. 113-114,152-153.
16. Ibid. p. 98.
17. For the history of St. Cyprian’s Anglican Church, see their parish history, A Book of Memory and Challenge on the Occasion of the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Parish of Saint Cyprian, Toronto, September 1951 and for the history of the Russian Orthodox parish, see their website, Christ the Saviour Russian Orthodox Cathedral, http://www.christthesavioursobor.com/?q=en/node/141
18. The website http://peterpaul.sobor.ca/fr contains a history of the parish by Olga Lawes Melikoff. St. Luke’s Anglican Parish had been founded in 1854.
19. Trevor Powell, archivist of the Anglican Diocese of Qu’Appelle, in a letter (19 October 2014), writes, ‘during the early-to-mid twenties as manpower restrictions became a thing of the past, reports are made to Diocesan Synod indicating use of Anglican churches by Orthodox priests in various parts of the diocese’. The Orthodox Mission of St. Gregory of Nyssa, Kingston, Ontario, holds its services in an Anglican Church. Anglican services have also been held in Roman Catholic churches. There are three examples in the Diocese of Rupert’s Land. In Gimli the Anglican Parish of St. Augustine of Hippo held their services in St. Michael’s Roman Catholic Church. In Transcona, the Anglican Parish of St. George held their services in Blessed Sacrament Roman Catholic Church. In Winnipeg the Anglican parish of St. Chad shared a building with Pope John XXIII Roman Catholic Church. This last was a partnership between the two parishes that jointly built and maintained a complex of Church, Chapels and parish hall. All three arrangements have come to an end.
20. For a discussion of the Theotokos of the Life-giving Spring, see Dr. Andreas Andreopoulos, Gazing on God: Trinity, Church and Salvation in Orthodox Thought and Iconography, Cambridge, UK: James Clarke & Co 2013, pp. 92-101.
21. Roman Yereniuk, The Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Lviv: Litopys, 2010, p. 292. Unfortunately Dr. Yereniuk does not identify the Anglican Church. It may have been St. Peter’s which was on Selkirk Avenue in the 1920s and was closed and demolished in 1931.
22. There are three sources for the history of the former Anglican building. They are Peter J. Koltusky, Ukrainian Greek-Orthodox Congregation of St. Michael, Sandy Lake, Manitoba: Past Half-Century 1927-1980, Sandy Lake, Manitoba: The Ukrainian Greek-Orthodox Parish of St. Michael, 1983, pp. 38-39, Our Roots: District Heritage: A History of Sandy Lake and District, Sandy Lake: Sandy Lake Historical Society, 1984, pp. 21-22, and Dr. Roman Yereniuk, op. cit., p. 315.
23. Peter J. Koltusky, op. cit., pp. 4 & 6.
24. I have consulted the archives of the Anglican Diocese of Rupert’s Land which included the district of Sandy Lake within its boundaries until 1924 when the Anglican Diocese of Brandon came into existence and assumed jurisdiction for that district. I have not yet consulted the archives of the Diocese of Brandon. There is, however, no mention of Sandy Lake or of the nearby communities in Wilma MacDonald, Guide to the Holdings of the Archives of Rupert’s Land: Records of the Anglican Church of Canada No. 1, 1986, Winnipeg, MB: St. John’s College Press, 1986.
25. Our Roots: District Heritage: A History of Sandy Lake and District, Sandy Lake: Sandy Lake Historical Society, 1984, p. 3.
26. For the evidence of the Anglo-Saxon population, see the list of names of the people buried in the Pioneer cemetery. A local person described the people as ‘Métis’.
27. The Reverend Canon Edwyn S. W. Pentreath, 16 December 1892, Archives of the Diocese of Rupert’s Land, Old Christ Church file, Transcript of a handwritten account of St. Mark’s Mission apparently written by the Rector of the day and kept in the Parish Register for the Mission. All the material concerning Old Christ Church can be found in Archives of the Diocese of Rupert’s Land W.003 Old Christ Church, Winnipeg, and St. Mark’s Mission is in Box 3 file 6. This document gives Canon Pentreath’s first name as ‘George’.
30. Synod Journal 1905, p. 76. St. John’s College used to award the Cassap prize in Church History. I won it twice.
31. Synod Journal 1909, p. 64.
32. Synod Journal 1911, p. 71. This is an example of the long-standing custom of the professors and students of St. John’s College accepting the responsibility of ministry in rural and urban missions.
33. Christ Church Minute Book, Printed Annual Report Easter 1906, p. 2. Mr. Warwick was subsequently Rector of St. Andrew’s on the Red and he and his wife are buried in the graveyard there.
34. Christ Church Minute Book Printed Annual Report Easter 1907, p. 2.
35. Christ Church Minute Book Printed Annual Report Easter 1908, p. 1.
36. Christ Church Minute Book Printed Annual Report Easter 1909, p. 1.
38. Similar changes in population affected two other Winnipeg parishes, Old St. Peter’s and St. George’s. In 1931 St. Peter’s Church on Selkirk Avenue was demolished; their people had moved to other parts of Winnipeg. See S. C. Sharman, ‘Old St Peter’s ,Winnipeg’, The Rupert’s Land News 29.7 (September 1993), p. 8. The original St. George’s Church, Winnipeg, was at Lydia Street and William Avenue (1884) followed by a larger building at Isabel and Bannatyne (1894). By the First World War, the Anglican population was leaving this neighbourhood and the church decided to follow the people. A new building was built at the corner of Grosvenor and Wilton in 1916 and the old church was closed in 1918. See Mary Lile Benham, Once More Unto the Breach: St. George’s Anglican Church 1883-1983, Winnipeg, 1983, pp. 3, 11, 14, 16-17 & 20). The shifts in population may be traced by examining the parish statistics which were published at times in the Synod Journals of the Diocese of Rupert’s Land.
39. Archives of the Diocese of Rupert’s Land, Christ Church, Minute Book, 15 May 1917. This is an example of the resources of one mission being used to support the ministry of a new mission in a developing part of the Diocese.
40. Archives of the Diocese of Rupert’s Land, Christ Church, Minute Book, 24 July 1918. In an Anglican Diocese, the purchase and sale of buildings and properties requires the consent of the Archbishop and Executive Committee.
41. Synod Journal, 1919, p. 71. A Synod Journal records the proceedings of the Diocese’s Synod, a meeting of the Bishop, clergy and lay representatives of the parishes and includes the reports presented to the meeting.
42. It would be interesting to know what became of this money after Christ Church Parish was disestablished.
43. Basil Rotoff, Roman Yereniuk & Stella Hryniuk Monuments to Faith, Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1990, p. 95.
44. Ibid. Lemko is a region in the Western Ukraine whose churches have a distinctive style. For a description of the style and pictures of churches of that style, see Roman Yereniuk, The Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Lviv 2010, pp. 283-285.
45. Rotoff et al., op. cit., p. 95.
46. Cheryl Girard, ‘Pioneer Church has history behind its beauty’, Winnipeg Free Press, Saturday, 2 August 2014, p. D15.
49. A brief history of the Parish of St. Michael and All Angels may be found in S. C. Sharman, ‘The Parish of St Michael and All Angels, Winnipeg’ Rupert’s Land News 38.5 (May 1992), p.2; for the history of the Russian Orthodox Parish, see Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia: The Church and Parish of the Holy Resurrection, Winnipeg.
50. Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia: The Church and Parish of the Holy Resurrection, Winnipeg, p. 14.
51. Fr. Turney’s ecumenical friendships were honoured at his funeral on 19 August 1962. On the evening before the funeral (18 August 1962), the prayers were sung in Polish by Fr. D. Malinowsky of St. Mary’s Polish National Catholic Church, Winnipeg.
52. Matthew 25.25 RSV.
53. This account is drawn from their parish history, Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia: The Church and Parish of the Holy Resurrection, Winnipeg, pp. 12-15 & 21-22.
54. The Russian Orthodox Church outside of Russia is now in communion with the Moscow Patriarchate.
55. Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia: The Church and Parish of the Holy Resurrection, Winnipeg, p. 14. It would be good to know more about this group and the history of their Church. Did they build it themselves or did they purchase it from another group of Christian people?
56. The description of the Iconostasis and the Icons is found on Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia: The Church and Parish of the Holy Resurrection, Winnipeg, p.14.
57. Archives of the Parish of St. Michael and All Angels, Winnipeg, Volume One Book B.
58. Archives of the Parish of St. Michael and All Angels, Winnipeg, Volume One Book B, letter dated 26 November 1970.
59. Archives of the Parish of St. Michael and All Angels, Winnipeg, Volume One Book C.
60. Material relating to the history of St. Philip’s Parish may be found in the Archives of the Diocese of Rupert’s Land W.037 St. Philip’s Parish, Norwood, Winnipeg.
61. It is the custom of the Anglican Church to delay the consecration of a Church until the building is paid for.
62. I am grateful to Father Anthony Eastabrooks, the parish priest of the Mission, the Rev. Donald McKenzie, the Incumbent of St. Philip’s and Matushka Diane Kennaugh for information about the relationship between St. Philip’s and the Mission of the Theotokos of the Life-Giving Spring.
63. Basil Rotoff, Roman Yereniuk & Stella Hryniuk, Monuments to Faith, Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1990, p. 47, and Roman Yereniuk, The Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Lviv, 2010, p. 292.
64. S. C. Sharman, ‘The Church Building’, Canadian Journal of Orthodox Christianity, Vol. IX No. 3 (Fall 2014).
65. Cited in S. C. Sharman, ‘Archbishop Walter: Reflections on the Past Decade’, Rupert’s Land News, Vol. XXIX No. 10 (December 1993), p. 15.
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