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Manitoba
History

No. 87


War
Memorials
in Manitoba


This Old
Elevator


Abandoned
Manitoba


Memorable
Manitobans


Historic Sites
of Manitoba

Manitoba History: Pioneers on the Forest Fringe: The Wood Economy of the Red River Settlement, 1812-1883

by Thomas Shay
Welton, East Yorkshire, England

Number 78, Summer 2015

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Click the icon at left for the Table of Contents of this issue.

Notes:

1. J. M. Bumsted, The Collected Writings of Lord Selkirk, 1810-1820, Vol. II, Winnipeg: Manitoba Record Society Publications, 1987, xiv, page 9.

2. W. L. Morton, Manitoba: A History, 2nd ed., Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967, page 46.

3. K. G. Davies, Letters From Hudson Bay, 1703-40, London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1965, pages 167-170.

4. W. L. Morton, Manitoba: A History, 2nd ed., page 65.

5. A. Ross, The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress, and Present State, with Some Account of the Native Races and its General History to the Present Day, London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1858; Reprinted Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1972, page 170-171.

6. Edward Van Dyke Robinson, “Early Economic Conditions and the Development of Agriculture in Minnesota,” in The University of Minnesota Studies in the Social Sciences No. 3, Minneapolis: Bulletin of the University of Minnesota, 1915, page 32.

7. J. Macoun, Manitoba and the Great North-West, Guelph: The World Publishing Company, 1882, page 489; Alan F. J. Artibise, Winnipeg: A Social History of Urban Growth, 1874-1914, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1975.

8. Plant communities within 30 km (18 miles) of the centre of the Settlement calculated from maps in E. F. Bossenmaier and C. G. Vogel, Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat in the Winnipeg Region, Winnipeg: Resource Planning, Manitoba Department of Mines, Resources, and Environmental Management, 1974, pages 8-12.

9. Thomas R. Weir, Economic Atlas of Manitoba, Winnipeg: Department of Industry and Commerce, Province of Manitoba, 1960, pages 20-21.

10. Chester Martin, Red River Settlement Papers in the Canadian Archives Relating to the Pioneers, (Ottawa: Archives Branch, 1910), 22. The term “pine” in McDonell’s description may refer to more than one type of conifer.

11. J. Warkentin and R. I. Ruggles, Historical Atlas of Manitoba, Winnipeg: The Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, 1970, page 189 (Map 74).

12. C. T. Shay, “The History of Manitoba’s Vegetation,” pp. 93-125 in Natural Heritage of Manitoba: Legacy of the Ice Age, edited by J. T. Teller, Winnipeg: Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, 1984, pages 108-109; J. M. Shay, The Vegetation of Significant Natural Areas in Winnipeg, Winnipeg: Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, 1996, page 71; Jennifer M. Shay and Isobel Waters, A Botanical Study of the Forest Communities Along the LaSalle River in St. Norbert, Manitoba, Winnipeg: Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, 1995, pages 54-55.

13. This is the area between the U.S. border and the Winnipeg River and from the Red River to the Ontario border.

14. Manitoba Forest Service, Report No. 1: Southeastern Forest Section, Forest Resources Inventory; Manitoba Forest Service, Report No. 2: Winnipeg River Forest Section, Forest Resources Inventory; Manitoba Forest Service, Report No. 3: Lowlands South Forest Section, Forest Resources Inventory; Surveyor’s descriptions of the vegetation during the land surveys of the late 1800s and early 1900s are contained in Office of the Surveyor General, Extracts on Reports from Townships East of the Principal Meridian received from surveyors to July 1, 1914, Ottawa: Topographical Surveys Branch, Dept. Of the Interior, 1915, pages 8-43; S. M. Anderson, An Investigation of Soil/Vegetation Relationships in Southeastern Manitoba, Winnipeg: MSc. Thesis, University of Manitoba, 1960; for forest descriptions contained in soils reports see R. E. Smith, W. A. Ehrlich, J. S. Jameson, J. H. Cayford, Report of the Soil Survey of the South-Eastern Map Sheet Area, Winnipeg: Manitoba Dept. Of Agriculture and Conservation, 1964, pages 94-104; R. E. Smith, W. A. Ehrlich, S. C. Zoltai, Soils of the Lac du Bonnet Area, Winnipeg: Manitoba Department of Agriculture, 1967, pages 102-111.

15. For estimating the amount of lumber needed for an average house, see Thomas Spence, Useful and practical hints for the settler on Canadian prairie lands and for the guidance of intending British emigrants to Manitoba and the North-West of Canada with facts regarding the soil, climate, products, etc., and the superior attractions and advantages possessed, in comparison with the western prairie states of America, St. Boniface: Second edition, revised and corrected, Office of the Minister of Agriculture, 1881, pages 17; J. I. Rempel, Building With Wood, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967, page 75.

16. Department of the Environment, Canada Land Inventory. Land Capability for Forestry Manitoba, South Part, map.

17. John McDougall, Forest, Lake and Prairie – Twenty Years of Frontier Life in Western Canada, 1842-1862, Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1895, pages 104-105.

18. W. Douglas, “New Light on the Old Forts of Winnipeg,” in Manitoba Historical Society Transactions Series 3, accessed 13 April 2009, no pages given.

19. Samuel Taylor, Archives of Manitoba, MG 2 C13 Samuel Taylor’s Journal 1853-1857, 4.

20. George Young, Manitoba Memories: Leaves From My Life in the Prairie Province, 1868-1884, Toronto: William Briggs, 1897, page 74.

21. Library and Archives Canada, John Inkster at Fort Garry, 1840-1872 Fonds, R7918-0-9-E, “John Inkster Account Book 1848-1852,” 19. Former archival reference no. MG19-E7.

22. Map in K. Wilson, “Life at Red River: 1830-1860,” Ginn Studies in Canadian History, Toronto: Ginn and Company, 1970, page 8; Farmsteads were distributed 56 km (37 miles) upstream and 32 km (20 miles) downstream along the Red River. Settlers, mostly Métis, were scattered 64 km (40 miles) upstream along the Assiniboine; A. Ross, The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress, and Present State, with Some Account of the Native Races and its General History to the Present Day, page 388; J. Wade, Red River Architecture, 1812-1870, MA Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1967, page 11.

23. Robert Coutts, Road to the Rapids: the Nineteenth-Century Church and Society at St. Andrew’s Parish, Red River, Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2000, page 143.

24. J. Wade, Red River Architecture, 1812-1870, page 11.

25. R. Blakeley, “Opening of the Red River of the North to Commerce and Civilization,” in Minnesota Historical Society Collections, vol. 8, pages 45-67, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1898, page 64; C. H. Lee, The Long Ago. Facts of History from the Writings of Captain Alexander Henry, Hon. Charles Cavalier, H. V. Arnold, Colonel C. A. Lounsberry and Others, Walhalla: Semi-weekly Mountaineer Print, 1898, page 39; John H. O’Donnell, Manitoba as I saw it, from 1869 to Date. With Flashlights on the First Riel Rebellion, Toronto: The Musson Book Company Limited, 1909, page 106, accessed 29 April 2009.

26. R. G. MacBeth, The Making of the Canadian West: The Reminiscences of an Eye-Witness, Toronto: W. Briggs, 1905, page 33.

27. Robert Coutts, Road to the Rapids: the Nineteenth-Century Church and Society at St. Andrew’s Parish, Red River, page 143; W. J. Healy, Winnipeg’s Early Days, Winnipeg: Stovel Company, Ltd., 1923, page 97.

28. Archives of Manitoba, George Henry Gunn Fonds, Journal of Peter Garrioch Part 5: Home Journal, 1845-1847, MG9 A78-3 box 6 file 6.

29. A. Ross, The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress, and Present State, with Some Account of the Native Races and its General History to the Present Day, page 198; Leo Pettipas, personal communication.

30. Alan F. J. Artibise, ed., Gateway City: Documents on the City of Winnipeg, 1873-1913, Vol. 5 of the Manitoba Record Society, Winnipeg: Manitoba Record Society, 1979, page 5; R. Bérard, Rivière aux Rats Canoe Route (map brochure), Winnipeg: Manitoba Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Cultural Affairs, Parks Branch, circa 1970, map.

31. Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, Winnipeg: Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Tourism, 2000, page 21, accessed 16 May 2014.

32. W. J. Healy, Winnipeg’s Early Days, page 70; R. G. MacBeth, The Making of the Canadian West: The Reminiscences of an Eye-Witness, page 98.

33. A. W. Bealer, Old Ways of Working Wood (Edison: Castle Books, 1996), 87.

34. George Sturt, The Wheelwright’s Shop (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1963), 34.

35. J. Wade, Red River Architecture, 1812-1870, 11; George Young, Manitoba Memories: Leaves From My Life in the Prairie Province, 1868-1884, 198.

36. Grant MacEwan, Cornerstone Colony: Selkirk’s Contribution to the Canadian West (Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1977), 177.

37. W. Douglas, “New Light on the Old Forts of Winnipeg”; Edmund Henry Oliver, The Canadian North-West: Its Early Development and Legislative Records. Minutes of the Councils of the Red River Colony and the Northern Department of Rupert’s Land Vol. 2 (Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1915), 1290.

38. J. Wade, Red River Architecture, 1812-1870, ii, 6, 46.

39. Eric Sloane, Museum of Early American Tools (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 15.

40. John E. Foster, “Ruperts’ Land and the Red River Settlement,” pages 19-72 of The Prairie West to 1905: A Canadian Sourcebook, edited by Lewis G. Thomas (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975), 43-44.

41. Thomas Spence, Useful and practical hints for the settler on Canadian prairie lands and for the guidance of intending British emigrants to Manitoba and the North-West of Canada with facts regarding the soil, climate, products, etc., and the superior attractions and advantages possessed, in comparison with the western prairie states of America, 17; J. I. Rempel, Building With Wood, 75.

42. A. Ross, The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress, and Present State, with Some Account of the Native Races and its General History to the Present Day, 388.

43. John E. Foster, “Ruperts’ Land and the Red River Settlement,” 43-45.

44. J. Wade, Red River Architecture, 1812-1870, 27; drawings of some surviving houses can be found in Lillian Gibbons and Arlene Osen, Stories Houses Tell (Winnipeg: Hyperion Press, 1978), 18, 22, 26.

45. Lillian Gibbons, “Early Red River Homes,” MHS Transactions, Series 3 (Winnipeg: Manitoba Historical Society, 1945-46), no pages given. Accessed 28 May 2009 at http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/transactions/3/redriverhomes.shtml

46. Archives of Manitoba, B235.

47. A. Ross, The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress, and Present State, with Some Account of the Native Races and its General History to the Present Day, page 388; D. King, The Grey Nuns and the Red River Settlement (Agincourt: The Book Society of Canada Limited, 1980), 36.

48. W. J. Healy, Winnipeg’s Early Days, page 91.

49. Wooden artifacts, wood chips, shavings, and charcoal fragments were identified by J. Zwiazek, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba. These fragments were from diverse contexts and ranged in size from a few millimetres to 1 metre. For wood identification, thin-sections were cut by hand in transverse, tangential, and/or radial planes. They were stained in saffranin and examined under a Zeiss compound microscope (SN4257342) with magnifications up to 1000 times. Thin-sections are necessary to distinguish between poplar and willow, and among the conifers. Charcoal pieces (usually greater than 1-2 millimetre transverse face) were mounted on microscope slides with plasticine and examined under a Zeiss universal research microscope with a reflected light attachment. The sources of information for Table 3 are: Scott St. George and Erik Nielsen, “Paleoflood Records for the Red River, Manitoba, Canada Derived from Anatomical Tree-Ring Signatures,” in The Holocene 13, pages 547-555 (2003), page 549; Sid Kroker, Barry B. Greco, Sharon Thomson, 1990 Investigations at Fort Gibraltar I, Winnipeg: The Forks Public Archaeology Project, 1991, page 140; K. David McLeod, Archaeological Investigations at Delorme House (Dklg-18),1981, Final Report 13, Winnipeg: Department of Cultural Affairs and Historical Resources, 1982, page 107; K. David McLeod, editor, The Garden Site, Dklg-16. A Historical and Archaeological Study of a Nineteenth Century Métis Farmstead, Final Report 16, Winnipeg: Department of Cultural Affairs and Historical Resources, 1983, page 109; Peter J. Priess, Sheila Bradford, S. Biron Ebell, Peter W. Nieuwhof, Archaeology at The Forks: An Initial Assessment, Microfiche Report Series No. 375, Ottawa: Environment Canada, Canadian Parks Service, 1986, page 405; Patricia M. Badertscher, “Salvage Operations at Dllg-13, a Scots Métis Farmstead in the Red River Settlement,” Manitoba Archaeological Quarterly 8 (1984), page 11; C. Thomas Shay, Margaret Kapinga, Jennifer M. Shay, “The Analysis of Plant and Other Organic Remains from Upper Fort Garry (1846-1882),” presented to the Manitoba Heritage Federation, Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Department of Anthropology, 2002, Table 3. The dates of the sites apart from Fort Gibraltar are from Bonnie Lee A. Brenner and Gregory G. Monks, “Detecting Economic Variability in the Red River Settlement” Historical Archaeology 36 (2002), page 26.

50. Pine is listed in the Hudson’s Bay Company inventories as an important building material, but it made up only 9% of the archaeological wood. Spruce is not mentioned in the inventories, yet made up half of the wood remains.

51. Russell M. Burns and Barbara H. Honkala, Silvics of North America, Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1990, pages 594-595.

52. Donald Culross Peattie, A Natural History of Trees of Eastern and Central North America, New York: Bonanza Books, 1966, page 386; Aldren A. Watson, Country Furniture, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1974, page 36.

53. Anne Matheson Henderson, Kildonan on the Red, Winnipeg: Lord Selkirk Association of Rupert’s Land, 1981, page 35.

54. W. Douglas, “New Light on the Old Forts of Winnipeg.”

55. Edmund Henry Oliver, The Canadian North-West: Its Early Development and Legislative Records. Minutes of the Councils of the Red River Colony and the Northern Department of Rupert’s Land, Vol. 1, Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1914, pages 406-407, 432-434; Samuel B. Steele, Forty Years in Canada: Reminiscences of the Great North-West With Some Account of His Service in South Africa, Toronto: Coles, 1915, page 31.

56. A. Ross, The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress, and Present State, with Some Account of the Native Races and its General History to the Present Day, page 394; J. Wade, Red River Architecture, 1812-1870, page 51.

57. Robert Coutts, Road to the Rapids: the Nineteenth-Century Church and Society at St. Andrew’s Parish, Red River, 122.

58. This range of wood use is based upon three estimates. In Hiram M. Drache, The Challenge of the Prairie: Life and Times of Red River Pioneers (Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1970, page 111), Drache states that in Georgetown on the Red River near Moorhead, Minnesota, an average home used at least 15 cords over a winter. The 1881 Census for Manitoba gives a range of 6-32 cords per family per year for the five census districts with an average of 16 cords (Government of Canada, 1882, Table 26). H. S. Graves, The Use of Wood for Fuel. Bulletin No. 753, Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1919), Table 1 gives a range of 3-19 cords and an average of 11.6 cords for all US farm households in 1917 at a time when some coal was also used for fuel; H. Y. Hind, Papers Relative to the Exploration of the Country Between Lake Superior and the Red River Settlement, London: George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, 1859, page 107.

59. Michael Harris, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Heating with Wood, 1st edition, Secaucus: The Citadel Press, 1980, page 24.

60. H. Y. Hind, Narrative of the Canadian Red River exploring expedition of 1857 and of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan exploring expedition of 1858, London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860; Second printing, Edmonton: M. G. Hurtig Ltd., 1971, page 231.

61. Robert Michael Ballantyne, Hudson’s Bay, or, Every-day Life in the Wilds of North America During Six Years’ Residence in the Territories of the Hon. Hudson’s Bay Company, Boston: Phillips, Sampson, 1859, page 86.

62. Diane Payment, Riel Family: Home and Lifestyle at St. Vital, 1860-1910, Winnipeg: Parks Canada, Historical Research Division, Prairie Region, 1980, pages 18-19.

63. E. J. Mullins and T. S. McKnight, Canadian Woods: Their Properties and Uses, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981, Table 5.4, page 123.

64. C. T. Shay, “Aspects of Ethnobotany in the Red River Settlement in the Late 19th Century,” pp. 365-370 in Status, Structure, and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstructions, edited by M. K. Thompson, M. T. Garcia, F. J. Kense, Calgary: University of Calgary Archaeological Association, 1985, page 369.

65. J. Wade, Red River Architecture, 1812-1870, pages 50-51.

66. Gordon Moat, “Canada Stoves in Rupert’s Land,” The Beaver, Winter 1979, page 54; R. V. Reynolds and A. H. Pierson, Fuel Wood Used in the United States, 1630-1930, Washington: US Department of Agriculture, 1942, page 3.

67. Edmund Henry Oliver, The Canadian North-West: Its Early Development and Legislative Records. Minutes of the Councils of the Red River Colony and the Northern Department of Rupert’s Land Vol. 1, page 318.

68. Anne Matheson Henderson, Kildonan on the Red, page 36.

69. Virginia Petch, “Salt-Making in Manitoba,” Manitoba History, Number 51, 2006, accessed 23 May, 2014; Edith Paterson, Tales of Early Manitoba from the Winnipeg Free Press, Winnipeg, Manitoba: Winnipeg Free Press, 1978, page 31.

70. Anne Matheson Henderson, Kildonan on the Red, 24; Canon E. K. Matheson, “Chapters in the North-West History Prior to 1890, Related by Old Timers, Saskatchewan’s First Graduate. Being a History of the Development of the Church of England in North-Western Saskatchewan. Battleford, Saskatchewan.” in Canadian North-West Historical Society Publications 1, no. 3 (1927), page 7.

71. Eric John Holmyard, Makers of Chemistry, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931, pages 245-246.

72. Edwin C. Guillet, Pioneer Arts and Crafts, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968, page 42.

73. Edwin C. Guillet, The Pioneer Farmer and Backwoodsman, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963, page 206.

74. Conner Prairie, Fuel for the Fires: Charcoal Making in the Nineteenth Century (1996), no pages given, accessed 28 May 2009.

75. Ibid.

76. Frank Garrod and Louis Lafleche, Lower Fort Garry Smithy: Charcoal, Coal, and Slag Analysis, Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1985, page 8.

77. Edmund Henry Oliver, The Canadian North-West: Its Early Development and Legislative Records. Minutes of the Councils of the Red River Colony and the Northern Department of Rupert’s Land, Vol. 1, page 453; H. Y. Hind, Narrative of the Canadian Red River exploring expedition of 1857 and of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan exploring expedition of 1858, page 187; Stanley Norman Murray, The Valley Comes of Age: A History of Agriculture in the Valley of the Red River of the North, 1812-1920, Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1967, page 39.

78. Rebuilt from an earlier vessel, she had a capacity of 50 to 75 tons, a 100-horsepower locomotive-type steam engine, was 27 m (90 ft) long, 6.7 m (22 ft) wide, but drew only 36 cm (14 in) of water. W. L. Morton, Manitoba: A History, 2nd ed., pages 101, 115, 193-195.

79. Steamers also journeyed between Winnipeg and Edmonton, Alberta by way of Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan River. J. Macoun, Manitoba and the Great North-West, page 502; D. S. Lileboe, Steam Navigation on the Red River of the North 1859-1881, Master’s Dissertation, University of North Dakota, 1977, page 100.

80. Fred A. Bill and J. W. Riggs, Life on the Red River of the North, Baltimore: Wirth Brothers, 1947, page 74; “Steamboats On The Red,” no date, Pluck 1878-1886, accessed 7 July 2014.

81. Erik F. Haites, James Mak, Gary M. Walton, Western River Transportation: the Era of Early Internal Development, 1810-1860, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, page 56, estimates the daily consumption at one cordwood for each eight tons of steamboat, for a 100-ton steamboat this meant 12.5 cords a day; M. McFadden, “Steamboating on the Red,” in Manitoba Historical Society Transactions Series 3 (1950-51), no pages given, accessed online 28 May 2009; David E. Schab, “Woodhawks and Cordwood: Steamboat Fuel on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 1820-1860,” Journal of Forest History, 21 (July 1977), page 129.

82. Clarence A. Glasrud, Roy Johnson’s Red River Valley: A Selection of Historical Articles First Printed in the Forum from 1941 to 1962, Moorhead: Red River Valley Historical Society, 1982, pages 157, 238.

83. Eric Wells, Winnipeg, Where the New West Begins: An Illustrated History, Burlington, Ontario: Windsor Publications (Canada) Ltd., 1982, page 121.

84. Thomas R. Weir, Economic Atlas of Manitoba, page 28.

85. Library and Archives Canada, Privy Council Office, RG 2, “Timber limit, west of Whitemouth River – [Minister of the Interior], 28/12/78, [recommends] lease to Jos. Whitehead, contractor for section 15, [Canadian Pacific Railway],” Series A-1-a, for Order in Council see volume 374, Reel C-3324, Access Code 90, see also 1879-1110, Series A-1-d, Volume 2758; Library and Archives Canada, Privy Council Office, RG 2, “Timber limits on Whitemouth River – [Minister of Interior], 23 July/79, [recommends] a license be issued to Jos. Whitehead of Order-in-Council Number: 1879-1110,” Series A-1-a, for Order in Council see volume 381, Reel C-3326, Access Code 90, amended by Order in Council 1880-1224, 1880/07/05; see also 1880-1224; see also 1878-1110, Series A-1-d, Volume 2760; Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, page 27.

86. Formulae for converting logs to board feet in T. Eugene Avery, Forest Measurements, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967, page 51. The dimensions specified for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railroad in 1884 are based on Robert Gordon, James Robert Mosse, Granville C. Cuningham, Railway Construction and Working, with an Abstract of the Discussion Upon the Papers, London: Institute of Civil Engineers, 1886, page 112 (electronic version at AlanMacek.com).

87. C. B. Gill, Manitoba Forest History, Winnipeg: Forest Service, Department of Mines and Natural Resources, 1962, page 19.

88. Deborah Welch, T. A. Burrows, 1857-1929: Case Study of a Manitoba Businessman and Politician, Winnipeg: MA Thesis, University of Manitoba, 1983, page 17; C. B. Gill, Forest Resources Inventory, pages 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, Winnipeg: Forest Service, Department of Mines and Natural Resources, 1956.

89. Department of Interior, Annual Report Vol. 10, Canada Parliament Sessional Papers No. 25, Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1883.

90. W. L. Morton, Manitoba: A History, 2nd ed., page 175.

91. Thomas R. Weir, Economic Atlas of Manitoba, page 29; J. Warkentin and R. I. Ruggles, Historical Atlas of Manitoba, pages 319, 321, 323.

92. J. Macoun, Manitoba and the Great North-West, page 490; J. H. Ellis, The Ministry of Agriculture in Manitoba, 1870-1970, Winnipeg: Manitoba Department of Agriculture, 1971, page 50.

93. J. H. Ellis, The Ministry of Agriculture in Manitoba, 1870-1970, page 617.

94. Edith Paterson, Tales of Early Manitoba from the Winnipeg Free Press, page 70.

95. George Bryce, “Early Days in Winnipeg,” in Manitoba Historical Society Transactions Series 1 No. 46, accessed 29 April 2009.

96. J. Macoun, Manitoba and the Great North-West, page 500; Alan F. J. Artibise, Winnipeg: A Social History of Urban Growth, 1874-1914, page 130; J. H. Ellis, The Ministry of Agriculture in Manitoba, 1870-1970, page 41.

97. Government of Canada, Census of Canada, 1880-81, Vol. 3, Ottawa: MacLean, Roger & Co., 1882, pages 264-265 (Table 26).

98. Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, page 19.

99. Fred C. Lucas, An Historical Souvenir Diary of the City of Winnipeg, Canada, Winnipeg: Cartwright and Lucas, 1923, pages 57, 68.

100. Charles N. Bell, “The Great Winnipeg Boom,” Manitoba History, Number 53, 2006, accessed 3 May, 2015; R. R. Rostecki, The Growth of Winnipeg, 1870-1886, MA Thesis, Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1980; Christopher Dafoe, Winnipeg: Heart of the Continent, Winnipeg: Great Plains Publications, 1998, page 73.

101. George Bryce, Early Days in Winnipeg, Winnipeg: Manitoba Free Press Printers, 1894, page 5, accessed 16 May 2014 at peel.library.ualberta.ca/bibliography/2127.html; Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, page 19.

102. Edmund Henry Oliver, The Canadian North-West: Its Early Development and Legislative Records. Minutes of the Councils of the Red River Colony and the Northern Department of Rupert’s Land, Vol. 1, pages 263, 264, 274, 369, 373, 440-443 485-486; and Vol. 2, page 1318.

103. Archives of Manitoba, General Quarterly Court Records, Council of Assiniboia, MG2 B4-1.

104. Thomas R. Weir, Economic Atlas of Manitoba, page 29 (Plate 13).

105. J. Warkentin and R. I. Ruggles, Historical Atlas of Manitoba, page 323 (Map 146).

106. Ronald A. Wells, Letters From a Young Emigrant in Manitoba, Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1981, page 95.

107. J. H. Ellis, C. B. Gill, F. W. Brodrick, Farm Forestry and Tree Culture Projects for the Non-forested Region of Manitoba, Winnipeg: Advisory Committee on Woodlots and Shelterbelts, Government of Manitoba, 1945, page 108.

108. Library and Archives Canada, RG 15, Headquarters Correspondence, vol. 229, file 1125, Report of a Committee of the Privy Council, 25 January 1873, Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1873.

109. “An Act Respecting the Public Lands of the Dominion, 1872” in Acts of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada, Ottawa: Brown Chamberlin, 1873, Chapter 23, pages 23-26.

110. The Act was based on The Crown Timber Act of 1849; Monique Passelac-Ross, A History of Forest Legislation in Canada: 1867-1996, Calgary: Canadian Institute of Resources Law, 1997, page 7; C. B. Gill, Manitoba Forest History, page 19.

111. “Extract from Report of Secretary of State of Canada for the year ending on the 30th June, 1872 Re: Revision for dividing timbered portions into wood lots,” in J. H. Ellis, C. B. Gill, F. W. Brodrick, Farm Forestry and Tree Culture Projects for the Non-forested Region of Manitoba, page 108.

112. The suggested royalty was twenty cents per cord of firewood, one dollar per thousand fence posts, two cents per cubic foot for oak building timber, and one cent per cubic foot for pine or other soft wood. Library and Archives Canada, RG 15, vol. 85, Ref. 3,700, P.C. 573, Report of the Privy Council, June 25, 1875, Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1875, page 325.

113. Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, page 7.

114. W. Pearce, Transcription of the William Pearce Manuscript, Vol. 1 Index and Chapters I and II, University of Alberta Archives Accession #74-169-459-55 (W. Pearce Collection), page 55.

115. Garrett Hardin. “The tragedy of the commons.” Science 162, no. 3859 (1968), pages 1243-1248.

116. Library and Archives Canada, RG 15, vol. 83, Orders in Council Dealing With the Department of the Interior. Memorandum; Department of Interior, Dominion Lands Office, 2 November 1874, Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1874, page 185.

117. C. B. Gill, Manitoba Forest History, page 4; Library and Archives Canada, RG 15, vols. 83-84, Orders in Council Dealing With the Department of the Interior Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1874, 1879.

118. Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, page 6; Library and Archives Canada, RG 15, Headquarters Correspondence, vol. 229, file 1896, Department of Secretary of State J. C. Aitkin, Report re Macaulay, Ginty and Sprague, Jan. 24, 1873, Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1873.

119. C. B. Gill, Manitoba Forest History, pages 5, 7; Library and Archives Canada, RG 15, vol. 83, Reg. No. 125, Report of the Privy Council, 17 January 1876 Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1876, page 405.

120. J. H. Ellis, C. B. Gill, F. W. Brodrick, Farm Forestry and Tree Culture Projects for the Non-forested Region of Manitoba, page 108; J. H. Ellis, The Ministry of Agriculture in Manitoba, 1870-1970, page 67.

121. R. Gillis and Thomas R. Roach, Lost Initiatives: Canada’s Forest Industries, Forest Policy, and Forest Conservation, New York: Greenwood Press, 1986, page 31.

122. R. K. Winters, The Forest and Man, New York: Vantage Press, 1974, pages 285–288; C. B. Gill, Manitoba Forest History, page 3; Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, page 38.

123. The 1882 price range. Historic Resources Branch, The Lumber Industry in Manitoba, page 19.

124. Library and Archives Canada, RG 15, vol. 84, Orders in Council dealing with the Department of Interior, Ref. 18,856, 25 June 1879, Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1979, page 99.

125. C. B. Gill, Manitoba Forest History, pages 10, 11.

126. J. Perlin, A Forest Journey: the Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991; C. D. Risbrudt, “Wood and Society,” pages 1-5 of Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, ed. R. M. Rowell, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2005, page 1.

127. Gerald Friesen, The Canadian Prairies: a History, student edition, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984, pages 91, 94, 112; Gerald Friesen, “Imports and Exports in the Manitoba Economy 1870-1890,” in Manitoba History 16 (1988), pages 31-41; D. Nerbas, “Wealth and Privilege: an Analysis of Winnipeg’s Early Business Elite,” in Manitoba History 47 (2004), pages 42-64.

128. Donald Gunn, History of Manitoba from the Earliest Settlement to 1835, Ottawa, Ontario: Roger Maclean, 1880, available as part of the Elizabeth Dafoe Library Microforms collection, 1880, page 348.

129. Painting reproduced in K. Wilson, “Life at Red River: 1830-1860,” Ginn Studies in Canadian History, 9.

130. W. H. Keating, Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter’s River, Lake Winnipeck, Lake of the Woods, etc., Performed in the Year 1823, London: G. R. Whittaker, 1825, page 61.

131. A. Ross, The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress, and Present State, with Some Account of the Native Races and its General History to the Present Day, page 199.

132. Manitoba Historical Society, Photographs from the Provincial Archives of Manitoba, 1967, no pages given, accessed 16 May 2014; Richard J. Huyda, Camera in the Interior, 1858: H. L. Hime, Photographer, the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition, Toronto: Coach House Press, 1975.

133. Photographs in Christopher Dafoe, Winnipeg: Heart of the Continent, pages 14, 40-41, 57, 61, 66, 67, 81, 88; Eric Wells, Winnipeg, Where the New West Begins: An Illustrated History, page 103.

134. T. C. Smout, Alan R. MacDonald and Fiona Watson, A History of the Native Woodlands of Scotland, 1500-1920, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007, Chapter 7.

135. Oliver Rackham, The History of the Countryside, London: Phoenix Press, 2000, pages 65-67.

136. E. V. Peterson and N. M. Peterson, Ecology, Management and Uses of Aspen and Balsam Poplar in the Prairie Provinces. Special Report 1, Edmonton, Alberta: Forestry Canada, 1992, pages 28-35; a year’s supply of firewood would amount to 4,000 to 6,000 three- or four-inch saplings, equal to several acres of young forest. Michael Harris, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Heating with Wood, Secaucus: The Citadel Press, 1980, page 24.

137. Samuel B. Green, Forestry in Minnesota, St. Paul: Pioneer Press Company, 1902, page 68.

138. Scott Wilson and Fiona Watson inform me that such management techniques were not always employed in Scotland during past centuries.

139. In order for coppicing to contribute to the firewood supply, householders needed a woodlot they could manage over a period of years. If we assume a 20-acre woodlot were composed mainly of aspen trees and that a few acres were harvested every year, how much firewood could they have harvested over a 20-year cycle? According to Manitoba forester Michael Doig (personal communication), in order to obtain 20 cords of firewood per year from a woodlot of aspen, households would need to clear 2 to 3 acres per year. For 30 cords, they would need 3 to 4.5 acres. If each Red River farm had a 20-acre woodlot and consumption was 20 cords per year, they could harvest 33-50% of their firewood on a sustained basis. If consumption were 30 cords a year, they could harvest between 22% and 33%.

140. Steve Hall, Fort Snelling: Colossus of the Wilderness, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1987, page 21.

141. Everett Dick, The Sod-House Frontier, 1854-1890: A Social History of the Northern Plains from the Creation of Kansas & Nebraska to the Admission of the Dakotas, Third Printing, Lincoln: Johnsen Publishing Company, 1954, page 259; G. Riley, Frontierswomen, Ames: Iowa University Press, 1981, page 20; J. A. Swisher, “Claim and Cabin,” in The Palimpsest vol. 49, no. 7, William J. Petersen, ed., Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1968, page 251.

142. Michael Williams, “Forests,” in The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years, B. L. Turner, II, W. C. Clark, R. W. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Mathews, W. B. Meyer, eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 179; Michael Williams, Deforesting the Earth: from Prehistory to Global Crisis, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2003, pages 458-493.

143. Jo Smith, Bruce D. Pearce, Martin S. Wolfe, “A European Perspective for Developing Modern Multifunctional Agroforestry Systems for Sustainable Intensification,” in Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 27 (2012), 323-332; Shibu Jose, Michael A. Gold, Harold E. Garrett, “The Future of Temperate Agroforestry in the United States,” in Advances in Agroforestry (Book 9), edited by P. K. R. Nair and D. Garrity, Springer: 2012, page 217-245.

Page revised: 1 December 2018

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