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Manitoba
History

No. 87


War
Memorials
in Manitoba


This Old
Elevator


Abandoned
Manitoba


Memorable
Manitobans


Historic Sites
of Manitoba

Manitoba History: Recent Polish Publications on Canada and the Emigration from Poland to Canada [*]

by A. B. Pernal
Brandon University

Manitoba History, Number 17, Spring 1989

This article was published originally in Manitoba History by the Manitoba Historical Society on the above date. We make it available here as a free, public service.

Please direct all inquiries to webmaster@mhs.mb.ca.

Poland float in Diamond Jubilee, Confederation Parade, 1 July 1927.
Source: Archives of Manitoba

Judging only by the volume of publications, it is safe to say that in the past two decades international migrations and the maintenance of ethnicity have become popular research topics both in Canada and in many other countries. It is also evident that in the same period the field of migration and ethnic studies have gained a status of respectability among academics.

In Poland migration and ethnic studies have experienced an unprecedented growth since the 1970s. Scholars from many disciplines have been involved. Although in recent years there has been a renewed interest in such ethnoreligious minorities of Poland as the Armenians, Jews, Mennonites and Tatars, most attention has been focused on the Poles who emigrated abroad and on their lives in the new homelands.

With regard to the latter interests, the present-day research is chiefly concentrated in three major areas. The first is the history of emigration from Poland, which includes the examination of its causes, its regional sources, and its characteristics—the numbers and backgrounds of the emigrants. The second is the pattern of “Polonia” [1] settlements in the new lands, as well as the establishment in them of visible signs of corporate life such as schools, parishes, lay and religious organizations, and the press. The third is Polonia’s participation in the life of the countries in which they settled.

This article is composed of three parts. The first identifies the leading Polish research centers which specialize in Polonia studies. The second describes their principal aims and activities. The third surveys their publications. Comprising the bulk of the article, the third part focuses on periodicals and books which are devoted to such topics as the emigration of the Poles to Canada, their life in Canada, and Canada as a country.

Among the many centers in Poland which concentrate on Polonia research, the following four are by far the most significant: the Polonia Research Institute (Instytut Badan Polonijnych) at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, which was founded in 1972; [2] the Polonia Ministry and Migration Institute (Zaklad Duszpasterstwa i Migracji Polonijnej) at the Catholic University of Lublin in Lublin, which came into existence in 1972; [3] the Polonia Research Institute (Zaklad Badan nad Polonia Zagraniczna) of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznan, which was opened in 1973; [4] and the Polonia Cultural and Educational Center (Polonijne Centrum Kulturalno-Oswiatowe) at the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin, which started to function in 1975. [5]

The principal aims of the above-mentioned centers are offering courses, conducting research, sponsoring learned conferences, maintaining international scholarly contacts, and publishing primary and secondary sources. [6] Each research center places a great emphasis on the last aim as it either publishes or contributes to the publication of a scholarly periodical or a yearbook; moreover, each is active in the publication of monographs and various other works. With regard to periodicals and yearbooks, the Cracow institute, in cooperation with the Committee of Polonia Research (Komitet Badania Polonii) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, has published since 1975 a quarterly entitled Przeglad Polonijny (Polonia Review); [7] that in Poznan, in collaboration with the Western Institute (Instytut Zachodni), has devoted annually since 1974 one fascicle of the periodical Przeglad Zachodni (Western Review) to current research on Polonia by its members; while the two scholarly enterprises in Lublin have published yearbooks: the Polonia Ministry and Migration Institute has issued since 1976 the Studia Polonijne (Polonia Studies), and the Polonia Cultural and Educational Center, since 1980, the Rocznik Polonijny (Polonia Yearbook).

One may wonder how Canada and the Canadian Polonia is treated in these periodicals and yearbooks. Since the examination of the contents of all four of them would extend this article substantially, it will be sufficient to provide an answer by examining only the issues of the leading Przeglad Polonijny from 1977 to 1987. The sample is legitimate, for these topics are dealt with in a comparable manner by the other three.

The quarterly contains nineteen full or partial articles pertaining to Canada and the Canadian Polonia. The articles cover a wide range of topics: multicultural policy, [8] origins of Ontario Kashubs, [9] research pertaining to Polonia, [10] re-emigration from Canada to Poland, [11] re-emigrants in Poland, [12] ethnicity, [13] changes in occupations, [14] statistics on emigrations, [15] educational system, [16] history of emigration to Canada, [17] ethnic language loyalties, [18] individuals of merit among the Kashubs, [19] church and secular organizations, [20] Polish treasures of art and culture, [21] institutions and organizations, [22] ethnic identity, [23] immigrants and ethnic groups in the cities, [24] library services, [25] and contribution to the Polish National Defense Fund. [26] Since on the average almost two Canada-oriented articles have appeared in print every year over the decade, one must conclude that the coverage in Przeglad Polonijny is quite good.

With regard to books, the past two decades have produced a rich harvest—bibliographies, general reference works, collections of studies, historical surveys, memoirs, biographies, monographs, geographical outlines and all sorts of travel literature—pertaining totally or partially to Canada and the Canadian Polonia. The selected titles that are mentioned here serve as examples.

Thus far three important primary sources have been published which comprise individual and collective memoirs of persons from a variety of backgrounds. The first of these was written by A. Fiderkiewicz (1886-1972), who served as head of the Polish legation in Ottawa in the years 1946-1947. As Fiderkiewicz represented the newly-formed Communist government in Poland, he was unable, for various reasons, to establish close contact with the Poles living in Canada. His memoir should be read with care, for his accounts of the various developments are not only one-sided but also highly insulting to the Canadian Polonia. [27]

The second book contains a collection of thirty-three reminiscences of emigrants prior to 1939, of which sixteen are published in their entirety, while the other seventeen are summarized. The writers represent the following Canadian provinces: Quebec—one, Ontario—nine, Manitoba—nine, Saskatchewan—six, Alberta—six, and two come from unspecified provinces. This is a very valuable source which illustrates how the emigrants from Poland, most of whom had no special professional skills and many of whom were illiterate, managed to survive in Canada and in due course, by hard work, to improve their lot and contribute to the development of their new homeland. [28]

The third memoir is of Jozef Samulski (1891-1974), and it sharply contrasts with the ones referred to above. It is unusual because Samulski, unlike most of his countrymen, did not leave a life of poverty. On his arrival in Canada in 1910 Samulski joined a gold rush. The search for gold obsessed him, driving him from one locality to another in Ontario and Quebec, and eventually to California, Mexico and Honduras. He finally made a fortune, only to lose it in the end. This memoir is an important document on the history of Canada as well as on that of the Canadian Polonia. The first volume covers the years 1910 to 1926; the second, the period from 1927 to 1956. [29]

One of the most valuable research aids is a bibliography of materials on the history of the Polish emigration to, and of Polonia communities in, the Western Hemisphere. Divided chronologically into various subject groups, the bibliography consists of 6,701 items, many of which concern Polonia in Canada, published both in Poland and elsewhere up to 1974. [30] These selected materials can be updated annually by means of three additional bibliographies: that of the National Library in Warsaw, which compiles literature pertaining to Polonia published abroad; [31] that of the Polonia Research Institute in Cracow, which lists titles on Polonia published in Poland; [32] and that of the Cracow’s Historical Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which compiles entries on historical sources for both of the publication categories mentioned above. [33] Finally, mention should be made of a very unique bibliography pertaining to Polonia almanacs published in the period from 1838 to 1982. [34]

With regard to general works, two collections of studies serve as excellent references for the chief causes of emigration from the Polish territories abroad, while two others provide valuable information about Polonia cultural activities and organizations in North America. The first, edited by C. Bobinska and A. Pilch, relates to the economically-motivated emigration during the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. It is an important book on the topic in the English-language historiography. [35] The second, edited by A. Pilch, extends both the period—to the eighteenth century, and the topic—to political causes for emigration. [36] Both books are indispensible for a proper understanding of the exodus abroad from the Polish lands. Edited by K. Groniowski and others, the third collection, devoted to the culture of Polish communities abroad, [37] contains a penetrating analysis by K. Romaniszyn about certain aspects of culture of the Canadian Polonia. [38] Included in the fourth collection, edited by G. Babinski [39] are two fine studies on Polonia organizations in Canada: “The Union of Poles in Canada: its history and role in the life of the Canadian Polonia,” by A. Reczynska; [40] and K. Romaniszyn’s “The rise and development of Polonia organizations in Canada through the perspective of their attitudes towards the Polish governments (1896-1939).” [41]

There are three books devoted to biographies of Canadians of Polish origin. One is an individual biography of Sir Casimir Stanislaus Growski (1813-1898). [42] Another one contains profiles of twenty-two prominent persons: Peter Growski, Witold Kuryllowicz, Donald Malinowski, Pawel Wyczynski, Janusz Zurakowski, Adam Bromke, Michael Smith, Jerzy Wieckowski, Stanley Skoryna, Jan Solecki, Erich Ratzlaff, Wojciech Wronski, Stanley Haidasz, Theodore Blachut, Casimir Stanczykowski, Walter Smishek, Edwin Tchorzewski, Adolph Matsalla, Tadeusz Grygier, Magdalena Suska-Krusche, Zdzislaw Radomski and Bogue Babicki. [43] The third, also a collective biography, comprises thirty-three biographical sketches of various people. Eleven of these are identified—Stanislaw Orlowski, Henry Slaby, Stanislaw Zybala, Janusz Dukszta, Danuta Bienkowska, Tadeusz Brzezinski, Marion Andre, Jesse Flis, Ted Glista, Marina Glista and Peter Growski; the identities of all others, however, are purposely semi-concealed. [44] A fourth book, a biography of Stanley Haidasz, is in press. [45]

With regard to historical works, H. Zins has written a short survey pertaining to the history of the Canadian Polonia, [46] while I. Jost has prepared a study-album on the Kashub settlement in Northern Ontario. [47] The book of M. Wankowicz should be regarded more as a literary than a historical masterpiece. [48] However, it deserves to be mentioned here because it played an important role—and to a certain degree continues to do so up to the present—in shaping among the Poles the image of Canada as a land of opportunity. The sketches of H. Zins relate both to Canadian and Polonia topics: Montreal, Toronto, and Sudbury; Donald Creighton as a historian of Canada; university life in Canada; the Canadian Polonia; Poles and Canadians; and the fate of two statues of Copernicus by Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844)—one in Warsaw and the other in Montreal. [49]

A considerable number of titles are devoted to Canada. H. Zins has prepared a scholarly survey of Canadian history, [50] while J. Zakrzewski has written one designed for a general public. [51] The publication of J. Barbag examines the economic geography of Canada, [52] while that of K. Wilgatowa outlines the country’s physical features. [53] Other books deal with Canadian history and economy, as well as trade between Poland and Canada; [54] significant Canadian contemporary issues; [55] success of Canadian agribusiness; [56] and Calgary as a host of the 1988 Winter Olympic Games. [57]

Of the many publications pertaining to travel in Canada and to the description of the Canadian way of life, the book of A. Fiedler may be considered a “classic” example, for it influenced several generations of Poles to regard Canada as a rugged unspoiled natural paradise “scented with resin.” [58] With regard to the many journalistic accounts that have been published some, such as the books of O. Budrewicz [59] and T. T. Kwiatkowski, [60] present only the magnificent landscape to the readers; others, such as those of J. Wozniakowski [61] and H. Kurta, [62] offer additional information—the former, a description of intellectual life in Canada; the latter, political developments in Quebec. There is still a fascination, especially among the young Polish readers, about the native peoples of Canada. This is revealed not only by the new editions of books such as those of Fiedler, [63] Okon, [64] Mech-Nehrebecki [65] and Sat-Okh, [66] but also by the publication of new titles, such as those of H. Ogrodzinska, [67] I. Przewlocka [68], Yackta-Oya [69] and Wernic. [70] Moreover, books by certain Canadian writers, such as Belaney, [71] De la Roche [72] and Montgomery, [73] are translated and published in large editions in Poland.

Three recently-published interesting monographs have been devoted to the analysis of the problems relating to departures from and re-entry into Poland during the inter-war period. The first, by H. Janowska, concentrates on certain basic problems: the emigration from and re-emigration to Poland; the conditioning mechanisms responsible for the migrations; the correlation of backgrounds of the Polish emigrants with those of the population in the target regions; the role played by the emigration in the socio-economic history of inter-war Poland; the changes resulting from mass emigration in Poland; and the possibility of re-structuring the country’s national, social and economic order. [74] The second, by E. Kolodziej, does not provide any new details on the topic which was analysed by Janowska, but it does illuminate certain selected policies of the various Polish governments. For example, the author provides good insight into the development of their emigration policies as a whole, including the attitudes of certain political parties; their plans to establish Polish colonies in Africa; their influence on the Polonia communities abroad; and their success in the establishment of the World Union of Poles Abroad. [75] The monograph of A. Reczynska is the third current publication devoted to the Polish emigration in the 1918-1939 period. Since the author examines in detail the entire process of emigration from Poland to one country—Canada—her book differs sharply from the above-mentioned broad syntheses of H. Janowska and E. Kolodziej, and it deserves a more detailed examination. [76]

Reczynska’s study comprises an analysis of six major topics: causes for the emigration from Poland to Canada; the statistical data pertaining to the emigration and its structure; the emigration policy of Poland and its application to the Canadian requirements; the Canadian immigration policy and its effect on Poland; the shipping disagreements between the two countries; and the various regulations imposed on the emigrants from Poland to Canada. The author devotes much space to a discussion of the second and the third topics. With regard to the former, she analyses the complicated and confusing Canadian and Polish statistical data, the emigration process and its structure, as well as the causes for re-emigration from Canada to Poland. With regard to the latter, she examines the characteristics of the Polish emigration policy, the various regulations designed for those emigrating to Canada, the plans for specific areas of their settlement in Western Canada, the steps taken to aid and protect the Poles arriving in their new homeland, and the problems relating to the emigration of the national minorities—chiefly the Jews and the Ukrainians—from Poland.

Three topics examined by Reczynska deserve to be singled out, for her treatment of them reveals original research: the problems and disagreements between Canada and Poland in the 1930s relating to the passage by ships of the emigrants from Poland; the reports, in 1929, of the delegation representing the Warsaw Colonization Association concerning the main centers suitable for Polish settlements in the Canadian West; and finally, “the way to Canada,” or the many trials and tribulations of the emigrants prior to the arrival in Canada—tickets, passports, visas, health certificates, medical examinations, fees, loans, bribes and the like, including the sea passages and the lengthy train rides. It is unfortunate that the author did not develop these topics more fully, since most readers will find them the most interesting parts of the book.

The scholarly labours of Reczynska deserve much praise. She has succeeded in writing a history of the Canadian Polonia based on a solid foundation of both Polish and Canadian primary and secondary sources. Since all previous publications in this field in Canada have made little, if any, use of the rich Polish archival materials, it will perhaps be worthwhile to mention that important collections pertaining to the history of the Polish emigrants and their settlements in Canada can be found in the following Polish archives and libraries among others: the Archiwum Akt Nowych (Warsaw), the Instytut Gospodarstwa Spolecznego (Warsaw), the Wojewodzkie Archiwum Panstwowe (Gdansk), the Wojewodzkie Archiwum Panstwowe (Cracow), and the Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich (Wroclaw). [77] Moreover, another praiseworthy feature of this book is the detailed statistical analysis of vast data, which is accompanied by twenty-six tables, three charts and three maps. The non-Polish reader is helped by the inclusion of the table of contents and the lengthy summary in English. The only major weakness of the book is that it lacks comprehensive indexes of persons, topics and place names.

What does Reczynska offer to readers interested in the history of Manitoba? Since the author is concerned with Canada as a whole, she cannot pay special attention to Manitoba; however, readers will still be able to find many details about the province. It should be pointed out that Manitoba comprised the largest Polonia concentration in Canada during the interwar period. Winnipeg can be considered as the Polonia “capital” of Canada for, according to the census of 1931, 11,228 persons of Polish origin resided in the city. Four parishes were located in Winnipeg, three of which possessed regular day parochial elementary schools. There functioned, as well, many religious and secular organizations, two Polish-language newspapers—the Catholic Gazette (Gazeta Katolicka) and the Times (Czas)—were published there, and the Polish consulate was located in the city. Moreover, the local Polonia could boast about its own professionals—physicians, dentists and lawyers—as well as about all types of businesses. For these reasons, the book contains much information about Manitoba.

The monograph of Anna Reczynska is a unique scholarly contribution to the history of Canada, Poland and the Canadian Polonia in the period from 1918 to 1939. If it will influence others to conduct further research in this field, the author will be paid the highest compliment for her labours. In any case, the book should be translated into English.

The publications reviewed above clearly reveal that there is much interest in Poland about Canada in general, and the lives of their compatriots or descendents in particular. Several other books on this subject are in press, [78] and the topic is also covered by numerous articles in various contemporary Polish periodicals and newspapers.

Notes

* Diacritical marks have been omitted from the Polish names, words and titles in this article.

1. This term is used in Poland and elsewhere to denote Polish communities or persons of Polish origin living abroad.

2. Andrzej Paluch, “Polonijny Osrodek Naukowo-Dydaktyczny Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego w Krakowie” [The Didactical and Educational Polonia Center of the Jagiellonian University], Przeglad Polonijny [hereafter cited as PP], 1, no. 1 (1975), 155-159. In 1976 it became known as the Polonia Research Institute.

3. Piotr Taras, “Instytut Migracji Polonijnej Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego” [The Polonia Migration Institute of the Catholic University of Lublin], PP, 1, no. 1 (1975), 165-167.

4. Adam Konieczny, “Zaklad Badan nad Polonia Zagraniczna Polskiej Akademii Nauk” [The Polonia Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences], PP, 1, no. 1 (1975), 161-163; Maria Barbara Topolska, “Zaklad Badan nad Polonia Zagraniczna PAN w Poznaniu w latach 1973-1983” [The Polonia Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznan, 1973-1983], PP, 10, no. 4 (1984), 81-94; and Antoni Czubinski, Instytut Zachodni (1944-1986) [The Western Institute, (1944-1986)], (Poznan: Instytut Zachodni, 1987).

5. Alicja Kwiatek, “Lublin—Polonii (1975-1977)” [The Lublin of Polonia (1975-1977)], Rocznik Polonijny, 1 (1980), 147-152. This article contains information about the activities of the Center since its foundation on 15 January 1975.

6. The work of the various centers is surveyed by Hieronim Kubiak, “Nad czym pracuja osrodki badan polonijnych?” [What kind of work is being done at the Polonia research centers?], Almanach Polonii 1979 (Warsaw: Interpress, 1978), pp. 185-189.

7. This periodical is a continuation of Problemy Polonii Zagranicznej, which appeared in the years 1960-1974, ending with vol. 9.

8. Steven Jaworsky, “Kanadyjska polityka wielokulturowosci” [The Canadian multicultural policy], PP, 3, no. 2 (1977), 65-74.

9. Wladyslaw Szulist, “Skad pochodza kanadyjscy Kaszubi?” [What is the origin of the Canadian Kashubs?l, PP, 3, no. 1 (1977), 185-190.

10. Benedykt Heydenkorn, “Badania nad Polonia w Kanadzie” [Research on Polonia in Canada], PP, 4, no. 4 (1978), 15-35.

11. Adam Walaszek, “Miedzy Nowym Jorkiem a Gdanskiem. Reemigracja ze Stanow Zjednoczonych i Kanady do Polski w latach 1910-1923” [Between New York and Gdansk: re-emigration from the United States and Canada to Poland, 1919-1923], PP, 5, no. 3 (1979), 21-39.

12. Adam Walaszek, “Reemigranci ze Stanow Zjednoczonych i Kanady w Polsce (1919-1923)” [Re-emigrants from the United States and Canada in Poland (1919-1923)1, PP, 6, no. 1 (1980), 5-17.

13. Barbara Les, “Rzeczywiste przejawy etnicznosci w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie oraz jej teorytyczne ujecia” [The actual manifestations of ethnicity in the United States and Canada and its theoretical expression], PP, 8, no. 3 (1982), 97-100.

14. Rudolf K. Kogler, “Tendencje przemian skladu zawodowego zbiorowosci polonijnej w Kanadzie w latach 1941-1971” [Occupational trends in the Polonia community of Canada, 1941-1971], PP, 7, no. 4 (1981), 17-30.

15. Anna Reczynska, “Dane statystyczne dotyczace emigracji z Polski do Kanady w latach 1918-1939” [Statistical data on emigration from Poland to Canada, 1918-1939], PP, 7, no. 4 (1981), 103-115.

16. Ewa Karwinska, Anna Reczynska and Malgorzata Wawrykiewicz, “Sympozjum ‘Rola kosciola w organizowaniu i dzialalnosci szkolnictwa polonijnego po II wojnie swiatowej’ “ [The symposium “The role of the church in the organization and functioning of the Polonia educational system after World War II”], PP, 7, no. 4 (1981), 117-122.

17. Dorota Praszalowicz, “ ‘Polacy w Ameryce Polnocnej’   miedzynarodowa konferencja na temat historii polskiej imigracji do Ameryki Polnocnej” [“The Poles in North America”: an international conference relating to the history of Polish immigration to North America], PP, 8, no. 1 (1982), 99-105.

18. Karol J. Krotki, “Lojalnosci jezykowe grup etnicznych w Kanadzie” [Language loyalties of ethnic groups in Canada], PP, 8, no. 2 (1982), 39-57.

19. Wladyslaw Szulist, “Zasluzeni wsrod kaszubskiej Polonii” [The meritorious among the Kashubian Polonia], PP, 10, no. 3 (1984), 105-118.

20. Anna Reczynska, “Sympozium ‘Organizacje polonijne a tozsamosc etniczna Polonii’ “ [The symposium “Polonia organizations and Polonia ethnic identity”], PP, 10, no. 3 (1984), 125-131.

21. Edward Wiecko, “Sprawa skarbow kultury i sztuki polskiej w Kanadzie” [The question of Polish cultural and art treasures in Canada], PP, 10, no. 4 (1984), 5-29.

22. Miroslaw Boruta, “Sesja naukowa pt. ‘Instytucje i organizacje polonijne w Ameryce Polnocnej’ “ [A scholarly meeting: “Polonia institutions and organizations in North America”], PP, 11, no. 3 (1985), 113-118.

23. Pawel Boski, “0 stawaniu sie Kanadyjczykiem lub pozostawaniu Polakiem: stabilnosc i zmiana etnicznej tozsamosci ‘ja’ wsrod polskich emigrantow w Kanadzie” [On becoming Canadian or remaining Polish: stability and change of the ethnic identity “I” among the Polish emigrants to Canada], PP, 13, no. 2 (1987), 35-54.

24. Wladyslaw Miodunka, “ ‘Imigranci i grupy etniczne w miastach kanadyjskich’. Konferencja naukowa zorganizowana przez Canadian Ethnic Studies Association” [“Immigrants and ethnic groups in Canadian cities”: a learned conference organized by the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association], PP, 13, no. 2 (1987), 77-80.

25. Maria F. Zielinska, “Uslugi biblioteczne dla grup etnicznych w miastach kanadyjskich” [Library services for ethnic groups in Canadian cities], PP, 13, no. 4 (1987), 83-94.

26. Krystyna Romaniszyn, “Zbiorka na Fundusz Obrony Narodowej w Kanadzie w swietle dokumentow archiwalnych” [The collection for the National Defense Fund in Canada in the light of archival sources], PP, 13, no. 4 (1987), 95-99.

27. Alfred Fiderkiewicz, Na placowce w Kanadzie [At a diplomatic post in Canada] (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1973).

28. Pamietniki emigrantow. Kanada [Memoirs of emigrants: Canada], pref., comp., ed., and introd. by Adam Andrzejewski, Halina Janowska and Marian Marek Drozdowski (Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1971).

29. Jozef Samulski, Pamietnik emigranta polskiego w Kanadzie [Memoir of a Polish emigrant in Canada], intro. by Andrzej Kwilecki; ed. by Barbara Szydlowska-Ceglowa, 2 vols. (Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, 1978-1982).

30. Irena Paczynska and Andrzej Pilch eds., Materialy do bibliografii dziejow emigracji oraz skupisk polonijnych w Ameryce Polnocnej i Poludniowej w XIX i XX wieku [Materials for a bibliography of the history of Polish emigration and Polonia communities in the North and South America in the 19th and 20th centuries], (Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego no. 511, Prace Polonijne, zeszyt no. 3) (Cracow: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, 1979).

31. Wanda Grebelska-Kaczmarczyk, Izabela Pszczolkowska and Wanda Rogozinska. Polonica zagraniczne. Bibliografia. 1975 [Foreign Polonica: a bibliography, 1975], ed. W. Rogozinska (Warsaw: Biblioteka Narodowa, 1983).

32. Wojciech Chojnacki, Polonia. Bibliografia publikacji wydanych w kraju w roku 1985 wraz z uzupelnieniami za rok 1984 [Polonia: a bibliography of imprints published in Poland in 1985, with supplements for 1984] (Cracow: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, 1987).

33. Waldemar Bukowski, Stanislaw Gluszek and Zbigniew Solak, Bibliografia historii polskiej za rok 1985 [A bibliography of Polish history for 1985], ed. Wieslaw Bienkowski (Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, 1988).

34. Wladyslaw Chojnacki and Wojciech Chojnacki, Bibliografia kalendarzy polonijnych 1838-1982 [A bibliography of Polonia almanacs, 1838-1982] (Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, 1984).

35. Alina Bobinska and Andrzej Pilch eds., Employment-seeking Emigrations of the Poles World-Wide, XIX and XX c. [Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego no. 417, Prace Polonijne, zeszyt no. 1] (Cracow: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, 1975).

36. Andrzej Pilch ed., Emigracja z zient polskich zo czasach noo’ozytnydt i najnou’szych (XVIII-XX u’.), [Emigration from Polish territories in modern and contemporary times (18th-20th centuries)] (Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1984).

37. Krzysztof Groniowski, Andrzej Klossowski and Witold Stankiewicz, eds., Kulfura skupisk polonijnych. Materialy z II syrnpoziunt naukoa’ego, Warszawa, 11 i 12 czeru’ca 1984 r. [The culture of Polonia communities: proceedings of the second symposium, Warsaw, 11-12 June 1984] (Warsaw, 1987).

38. Krystyna Romaniszyn, “Problemy ksztaltowania sie kultury skupiska polonijnego w Kanadzie,” ibid., pp. 161-172.

39. Grzegorz Babinski ed., Studia nad organizacjami polonijnymi w Ameryce Polnocnej [Studies on Polonia organizations in North America] (Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, 1988).

40. Anna Reczynska, “Zwiazek Polakow w Kanadzie dzieje i rola w zyciu kanadyjskiej Polonii,” ibid., pp. 165-176.

41. Krystyna Romaniszyn, “Powstanie i rozwoj organizacji polonijnych w Kanadzie w perspektywie deklarowanej przez nie postawy wobec rzadu poiskiego (1896-1939),” ibid., pp. 177-190.

42. Ludwik Kos-Rabcewicz-Zubkowski and William Edward Greening, Sir Gzowski, tr. Jozef Radzicki (Warsaw: Iskry, 1984). This is a Polish translation of Sir Casimir Stanislaus Gzowski: a biography (Toronto: Burns and MacEachen, 1959).

43. Olgierd Budrewicz, Rodacy spod Klonowego Liscia [Compatriots from the Land of the Maple Leaf] (Warsaw: Interpress, 1980). Its English version is entitled Polish-Canadian Profiles, tr. Eliza Lewandowska (Warsaw: Interpress, 1981).

44. Aleksandra Ziolkowska, Kanada, Kanada..., (Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Polonia, 1986). The original English version is entitled Dreams and Reality (Toronto: Century, 1984).

45. Aleksandra Ziolkowska, Kanadyjska senator [A Canadian senator]. The original Polish version is entitled Senator Haidasz (Toronto: Century, 1983).

46. Henryk Zins, Polacy w Kanadzie [The Poles in Canada] (Z dziejow Polonii, no. 1), (Lublin: Polonijne Centrum Kulturalno-Oswiatowe Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, 1975).

47. Izabela Jost, Osadnictzoo kaszubskie w Ontario [The Kashubian settlement in Ontario] (Lublin: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, 1983).

48. Melchoir Wankowicz, Tworzywo (New York: Roy Publications, 1954). The latest English translation (by Krystyna Cekalska), entitled Three generations, has been published in Toronto by the Canadian-Polish Research Institute of Canada in 1973. By 1975 eight editions of this book had been published in Poland.

49. Henryk Zins, W szoiecie anglosaskina. Studia i szkice o Ataglii i Kanadzie [In the Anglo-Saxon world: studies and sketches on England and Canada] (Lublin: Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, 1975), pp. 268-361.

50. Henryk Zins, Historia Kanady [A history of Canada] (Wroclaw: Zak-lad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, 1975).

51. Jan Zakrzewski, Ameryka kanadyjska [The Canadian America] (War-saw: Wydawnictwa Radia i Telewizji, 1988).

52. Jozef Barbag, Geografia ekonoaniczna Stanozo Zjednoczonych i Kanady [Economic geography of the United States and Canada] (2nd ed., Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, 1982), pp. 199-297.

53. Krystyna Wilgatowa, Krajobrazy Kanady [Landscapes of Canada] (2nd rev. ed., Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Szkolne i Pedagogiczne, 1986).

54. Stanislaw Ladyka, Kanada. Dzieje, gospodarka, zeymiana handlozoa z Polska [Canada: history, economy and trade with Poland] (Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, 1984).

55. Michal Dobroczynski and Roman March eds., Wspolczesna Kanada [Contemporary Canada], (Biblioteka Spraw Miedzynarodowych no. 66) (Warsaw: Polski Instytut Spraw Miedzynarodowych, 1978).

56. Stanislaw Marcinkowski, Kanada kzoitnaca pszenica. Studium agribiznesu [Canada flourishing in wheat: a study of agribusiness] (Warsaw: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1987).

57. Janusz Orleanski, Calgary ‘88. XV Zimowe lgrzyska Olimpijskie. Przewodnik [Calgary ‘88. XV Olympic Winter Games: a guide] (War-saw: Sport i Turystyka, 1987).

58. Arkady Fiedler, Kanada pachnaca zywca [Canada scented with resin] (Warsaw: Towarzystwo Wvdawnicze Roj, 1937 [actually in 1936]). Many Polish editions of this book have appeared. It has been translated into German, Slovak, Czech, Russian, Romanian, Estonian, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. The book’s sequel was I znozeu kuszaca Kanada. Indianie, bizony, szczupaki [And the tempting Canada once again: Indians, buffalo and pikes] (Warsaw: Iskry, 1965). This book has several editions and translations as well.

59. Olgierd Budrewicz, Nad Jukonem i obok [Yukon and other provinces] (Warsaw: Mlodziezowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1981).

60. Tadeusz Teofil Kwiatkowski, Kanadyjska mozaika [The Canadian mosiac] (Warsaw: Nasza Ksiegarnia, 1970).

61. Jacek Wozniakowski, Zapiski kanadyjskie [Canadian notes] (Warsaw: Iskry, 1973).

62. Henryk Kurta, Quebec, czyli co sie stalo z naorga sniegu [Quebec, or what has happened to the acre of snow] (Katowice: Wydawnictwo Slask, 1971).

63. Arkady Fiedler, Maly Bizon [Little Buffalo] (Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1952). The eleventh Polish edition of this book will be published in 1989. It has been translated into German, Russian, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Lithuanian and Serbo-Croatian.

64. Longin Jan Okon, Sladanti Tecuntseha [In the footsteps of Tecumseh] (3rd ed., Lublin: Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, 1987).

65. Leszek Mech and Wladyslaw Nehrebecki, W puszczaclt Kanada [In the Canadian wilderness] (2nd ed., Katowice: Wydawnictwo Slask, 1988). They have also published Lowcy bizonow [Buffalo hunters] (2nd ed., Katowice: Wydawnictwo Slask, 1988).

66. Sat-Okh [Stanislaw Suplatowicz], Bialy Mustang. Basnie i legendy indianskie [White Mustang: Indian tales and legends] (5th ed., Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1988). The first Polish edition was published in 1959.

67. Halina Ogrodzinska, Anno, pojedziesz na polnoc [Anne, you will travel north] (Warsaw: Nasza Ksiegarnia, 1986).

68. Irena Przewlocka, W sercu kanadyjskiej puszczy [In the heart of the Canadian wilderness] (Gdansk: Wydawnictwo Morskie, 1986).

69. Yackta-Oya, Groiazda Mohazeka [Mohawk’s star] (Szczecin: Glob, 1986).

70. Wieslaw Wernic, Sierzant Konnej Policji [Sergeant of the Mounted Police] (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1985).

71. Grey Owl [Archibald Stansfeld Belaney], Sejdzio i jej bobry [Sajo and her beavers] (5th ed., Warsaw: Nasza Ksiegarnia, 1984). In 1989 a 6th edition of this book will be published.

72. Mazo de la Roche, Rodzina Whiteoakozo [The Whiteoak family], 2 vols. The 4th edition of this book will be published in Poznan by the Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza in 1989.

73. Lucy Maud Montgomery’s novels are very popular in Poland. For example, a 2nd edition of her Blekitny zamek [The blue castle] (Warsaw: Nasza Ksiegarnia, 1985), will be published in 1989; while in the same year her Ania z Avonlea [Anne of Avonlea] and Ania na uniwersytecie [Anne at the university] will reappear in the 7th—or, strictly speaking, 10th—edition.

74. Halina Janowska, Emigracja zarobkozua z Polski 1918-1939 [Employment-seeking emigration from Poland, 1918-1939] (Polska XIX i XX wieku. Dzieje spoleczne) (Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1981).

75. Edward Kolodziej, Wychodzstzvo zarobkozve z Polski 1918-1939. Studio nad polityka emigracyjna II Rzeczypospolitej [Employment-seeking emigration from Poland, 1918-1939: Studies on the emigration policies of the Second Republic] (Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1982).

76. Anna Reczynska, Emigracja z Polski do Kanady zv okresie miedzyzvojennym [The emigration from Poland to Canada in the interwar period], Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Badania Polonii, Biblioteka Polonijna no. 17, ed. Hieronim Kubiak (Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, 1986).

77. Several valuable research aids have been published. The following can be easily used by non-Polish readers: Andrzej Piber and Mscislaw Wroblewski, Inwentarz akt Ambasady Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej zv Londynie [1916] 1919-1945 [Inventory of records of the Embassy of the Polish Republic in London, [1916] 1919-1945] (Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1974); and Edward Kolodziej, Polonia zagraniczna. Informator o rnaterialach zrodlozvych do 1939 roku przechozaywamich zv Archiwum Akt Nowych [Polonia abroad: a guide pertaining to source materials to 1939 preserved in the Archive of New Records] (Warsaw: Biblioteka Narodowa, 1981). Very useful, as well, is Richard C. Lewanski’s Guide to Polish libraries and archives (Boulder, Colorado: East European Quarterly, 1974). The National Library in Warsaw has started to publish a series of books—“Zbiory i prace polonijne bibliotek polskich” [Polonia collections and works of the Polish libraries]—which will aid all serious researchers. Thus far, out of the nine-volume series, the following have been published: vol. 1: Andrzej Klossowski, Zbiory i prace polonijne Biblioteki Narodozvej. Informator [Polonia collections and works of the National Library: a guide] (Warsaw: Biblioteka Narodowa, 1982); vol. 2: Halina Natuniewicz, Zbiory i prace polonijne Muzeum Literatury im. A. Mickiezvicza w Warszawie. Informator [Polonia collections and works of the Adam Mickiewicz Museum of Literature in Warsaw: a guide] (Warsaw: Biblioteka Narodowa, 1984); and vol. 3: Marta Parnowska, Polonica zagraniczne i inne zbiory polonijne Biblioteki Publicznej in. st. Warszau’y. Informator [Foreign Polonica and other Polonia collections of the Warsaw Public Library: a guide] (Warsaw: Biblioteka Narodowa, 1987).

78. For example, Marian Adamus, Eskimosi. Jezyk-folklor-kultura [The Eskimo: language, folklore and culture]; Arkady Fiedler, Rod Indian Algonkinow [The Algonquin Indian tribe]; Edward Kolodziej, Dzieje Polonii 1918-1939 [A history of Polonia, 1918-1939]; Krzysztof Michalek, W cieniu zvielkiego sasiada. Z dziejow polityki Stanow Zjednoczonych wobec Kanady i Meksyku (1867-1986) [In the shadow of a great neighbour: a history of the United States’ policy relating to Canada and Mexico (1967-1986)]; Jerzy Pardus, Kanada pachnaca nie tylko zyzvica [Canada scented not only with resin]; Zbigniew Teplicki, Wielcy Indianie Ameryki Polnocnej [The great Indians of North America]; and Wieslaw Wernic, W Nozvej Fundlandii [In Newfoundland].

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